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Cervical cancer (cervical carcinoma)

  1. The allopathic definition:

With cervical carcinoma cancer cells are found in the cervical tissue.

  1. How frequently does this type of cancer occur (incidence rate) in Germany (USA appr. x 3)?

Currently app. 7,000 women annually. There are statistics that are supposed to indicate that women who have not given birth, who became sexually active early in life, or who had infections with herpes or papilloma viruses, get cervical cancer more frequently. However these data are very difficult to evaluate and consequently must be considered carefully.

  1. Subdivisions:

The distinctions are mainly based on tissue types. Most (app. 80%) are squamous epithelial carcinomas, followed by the adenocarcinomas (app. 10-15%). The rest are mixed tumors.

Stages:

TX: Primary tumor cannot be assessed

T0: No evidence of primary tumor

Tis: Carcinoma in situ

T1/I: Cervical carcinoma confined to uterus (extension to corpus should be disregarded)

T1a/IA: Invasive carcinoma diagnosed only by microscopy. All macroscopically visible lesions–even with superficial invasion–are T1b/IB. Stromal invasion with a maximal depth of 5 mm measured from the base of the epithelium and a horizontal spread of 7 mm or less. Vascular space involvement, venous or lymphatic, does not affect classification

T1a1/Ia1: Measured stromal invasion 3 mm or less in depth and 7 mm or less in horizontal spread

T1a2/IA2: Measured stromal invasion more than 3 mm and not more than 5 mm with a horizontal spread 7 mm or less

T1b/IB: Clinically visible lesion confined to the cervix or microscopic lesion greater than T1a2/IA2

T1b1/IB1: Clinically visible lesion 4 cm or less in greatest dimension

T1b2/IB2: Clinically visible lesion more than 4 cm in greatest dimension

T2/II: Cervical carcinoma invades beyond uterus but not to pelvic wall or to the lower third of the vagina

T2a/IIa: Tumor without parametrial involvement

T2b/IIb: Tumor with parametrial involvement

T3/III: Tumor extends to the pelvic wall and/or involves the lower third of the vagina, and/or causes hydronephrosis or nonfunctioning kidney

T3a/IIIA: Tumor involves lower third of the vagina, no extension to pelvic wall

T3b/IIIB: Tumor extends to pelvic wall and/or causes hydronephrosis or nonfunctioning kidney

T4/IVA: Tumor invades mucosa of the bladder or rectum, and/or extends beyond true pelvis (bullous edema is not sufficient to classify a tumor as T4)

M1/IVB: Distant metastasis

  1. How is this type of cancer diagnosed by allopathic practitioners?

Unusual bleeding, abdominal pains, enlarged uterus, ultrasound, CT, magnetic resonance tomography, hysteroscopy (endoscopy of the cervix), curetting.

The PAP test is still performed frequently. Although many studies (for instance see the book: What Doctors don`t tell you, page 91-100) or the unnecessary expense involved, confirm the unreliability of this test, it is still part of the standard program of many gynecologists.

BOOKS
Read more about cervical cancer (cervical carcinoma) by reading a book.

Cervical Cancer: Contemporary Management

Cervical Cancer Awareness – Key to Curb New Incidences

Hematological And Hemostatic Parameters in Women With Cervical Cancer: Some Hematological and Hemostatic Parameters among Women with Cervical Cancer in Sokoto North Western Nigeria

What are the allopathic therapy concepts?

Surgery

There are no studies confirming that radical operations, i.e. with removal of the cervix and/or fallopian tubes, produce better results, as Connors and Norris demonstrated in their 1990 study. Unfortunately this operation is still frequently performed. In this process the cervix as well as the lymph nodes in the pelvis are also removed. Usually the entire cervix, both fallopian tubes, both ovaries, the pelvic lymph nodes, and parts of the abdominal viscera (tissue covering within the stomach area) are removed (Wertheim-Meigs-operation). Usually the upper third of the vagina is also removed.

Cleaning out of lymph nodes is even disputed among allopathic practitioners, as there are no studies that prove that patients live any longer through this measure (Hannigan et. al.; 1992, as well as Leibsohn). Considering that the side effects however are clearly greater, then this option should be discussed with the surgeon in any event.

In later studies parts of the colon, the rectum, or the entire bladder are also removed (exenteration). Thereafter you usually require a new vagina, which must be surgically created.

Chemotherapy

There are many studies with chemotherapies, usually in combination with irradiation. Most studies have shown that chemotherapies plus irradiation in comparison with irradiation only, decrease the chances of survival (Souhami et al., 1991, Cardenas et al., 1992, Kumar et al., 1994, Tattersall et al., 1995).

In recent years primarily cisplatin as established itself as “Gold standard”. What is interesting in this regard however (Malfetano et al., 1993 , Souhami et al., 1993, Runowicz et al., 1989, Potish et al., 1986), is that in all the studies only the response rates are cited (which naturally are quite high for cisplatin) and that the entire observation time amounts to a maximum of 44 months. In addition the groups examined were quite small, sometimes with 29 patients (Potish). However the most important thing here is that in the study, again there was comparison with a biological therapy, not to mention that the results were not all that exciting anyway (4-year survival 81% with cisplatin against 71% without it).

Another point is that with cisplatin, you are possibly giving up a chance for healing, as you damage your bone marrow so strongly, that you do not recover from the damage, or you die because of the therapy. This point is happily “forgotten” although countless people die through chemotherapy each year.

Irradiation

In 1992, Dr. Hannigan published a study in which he was able to prove that over 30% of all women with cervical cancer had been irradiated in the pelvic area due to other illnesses. This fact was immediately swept under the rug and the reason was given that these women had a predisposition to cancer anyway. From the conventional medical view, this is naturally understandable otherwise a radiologist would have to ask himself whether he had generated the cancer of these women! And it could even get worse. Someone could get the idea to likewise subject other types of cancer to an intensive examination. In this case it is certainly a lot better to certify “bad genes” for all women.

Irradiation plays a major role with cervical cancer. It used alone mainly for very advanced tumors and in the early stage, it is used instead of an operation. For local irradiation, a radiation probe is advanced through the vagina to the tumor region. This type if irradiation is referred to as afterloading. This measure is supposed to protect the tissue that is not affected by the tumor, such as the bladder or the intestine. Otherwise most women are offered a radio-chemotherapy combination, usually with a cisplatin supplement.

Additional therapies like hormones, antibodies, etc.

Hormonal therapies

Hormonal therapies are not used in treating cervical cancer, other than to trigger cancer. In this regard the medication tamoxifen plays a major role here.

Data published in 2000 confirm the danger of tamoxifen. In Holland 309 women who had developed cervical cancer after breast cancer illness were examined. These women were compared with 860 women who “only” developed breast cancer, with the result that women who took tamoxifen for a maximum of two years had a 50% greater risk; women who took tamoxifen for two to 5-years had a 100% greater risk, and women who took tamoxifen for more than five years had a 690% greater risk of developing cervical cancer (Lancet 2000, 356).  Moreover the cervical cancer was more difficult to treat than it was for the women who had never taken tamoxifen.

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